A massacre is the killing of a large number of people, especially those who are not involved in any fighting or have no way of defending themselves. A massacre is generally considered to be morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims. The word is a loan of a French term for “butchery” or “carnage”. A “massacre” is not necessarily a “crime against humanity“. Other terms with overlapping scope include war crime, pogrom, mass killing, mass murder, and extrajudicial killing.
Robert Melson (1982) in the context of the “Hamidian massacres” used a “basic working definition” of “by massacre we shall mean the intentional killing by political actors of a significant number of relatively defenseless people… the motives for massacre need not be rational in order for the killings to be intentional… Mass killings can be carried out for various reasons, including a response to false rumors… political massacre… should be distinguished from criminal or pathological mass killings… as political bodies we of course include the state and its agencies, but also nonstate actors
The modern definition of massacre as “indiscriminate slaughter, carnage”, and the subsequent verb of this form, derive from late 16th century Middle French, evolved from Middle French “macacre, macecle” meaning “slaughterhouse, butchery”. Further origins are dubious, though may be related to Latin macellum “provisions store, butcher shop
The shooting is the third-deadliest school shooting in the United States, after the Virginia Tech shooting in 2007 and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in 2012, as well as the ninth-deadliest mass shooting in modern U.S. history.
Police officers waited more than 1 hour and 14 minutes on-site before breaching the classroom to engage the shooter. Police also cordoned off the school grounds, resulting in violent conflicts between police and civilians, including parents, who were attempting to enter the school to rescue children. As a consequence, law enforcement officials in Uvalde have been heavily criticized for their response to the shooting, and their conduct is being reviewed in separate investigations by the Texas Ranger Division and the United States Department of Justice. Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS) officials laid much of the responsibility for the police response on Uvalde Consolidated Independent School District Police Department (UCISD PD) Chief Pedro Arredondo, who they identified as the incident commander. Arredondo disputed the characterization of his role as incident commander, but was later fired by the Uvalde school board for his actions during the shooting. A report conducted by the Texas House of Representatives Investigative Committee attributed the fault more widely to “systemic failures and egregious poor decision making” by many authorities. The report said, “At Robb Elementary, law enforcement responders failed to adhere to their active shooter training, and they failed to prioritize saving the lives of innocent victims over their own safety… there was an unacceptably long period of time before officers breached the classroom, neutralized the attacker, and began rescue efforts.
Multiple memorials were held in Uvalde and across Texas in commemoration for the victims for the one year anniversary of the shooting on May 24, 2023. Survivors, family members and supporters gathered for events such as a 77-minute vigil (the amount of time waited outside the classroom by authorities), candle lite vigils, butterfly release, and mariachi performances. President Biden spoke about the anniversary at the White House with 21 candles at the base of the White House Grand Staircase, and spoke about his frustration at a lack of change in gun policy. Similar frustration was echoed by survivors and family members who are waiting for investigations and legal cases to finish and policy to change, and many of these topics have caused anger and strife to be seen throughout Uvalde
The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting was a mass shooting that occurred on December 14, 2012, in Newtown, Connecticut, United States, when 20-year-old Adam Lanza shot and killed 26 people. Twenty of the victims were children between six and seven years old, and the other six were adult staff members. Earlier that day, before driving to the school, Lanza fatally shot his mother at their Newtown home. As first responders arrived at the school, Lanza died by suicide, shooting himself in the head.
|Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting|
|Part of mass shootings in the United States and school shootings in the United States|
|Location||Sandy Hook Elementary School, Sandy Hook, Connecticut, U.S.|
|Date||December 14, 2012|
c. 9:35 – c. 9:40 a.m. EST (UTC−05:00)
|Target||Students and staff at Sandy Hook Elementary School|
|School shooting, murder–suicide, pedicide, matricide, spree shooting, mass shooting, mass murder|
|Deaths||28 (27 at the school, including the perpetrator; and the perpetrator’s mother at home)|
|Defender||Victoria Leigh Soto|
|Litigation||Wrongful death lawsuit against Remington Arms settled for $73 million|
The incident is, as of 2023, the deadliest mass shooting in Connecticut history, and the deadliest mass shooting at an elementary school in U.S. history. It is also the second deadliest school shooting in the U.S, and the fourth-deadliest mass shooting overall.[a] The shooting prompted renewed debate about gun control in the United States, including proposals to make the background-check system universal, and for new federal and state gun legislation banning the sale and manufacture of certain types of semi-automatic firearms and magazines which can hold more than ten rounds of ammunition.
Sometime before 9:30 a.m. EST on December 14, 2012, Lanza shot and killed his mother Nancy Lanza, aged 52, with a .22-caliber Savage Mark II rifle at their Newtown home. Investigators later found her body clad in pajamas, in her bed, with four gunshot wounds to her head. Lanza then drove to Sandy Hook Elementary School in his mother’s car.
The police heard the final shot at 9:40:03 a.m. They believed that it was Lanza shooting himself in the lower rear portion of his head with the Glock 20SF in classroom 10. Lanza’s body was found wearing a pale green pocket vest over a black polo shirt, over a black T-shirt, black sneakers, black fingerless gloves, black socks, and a black canvas belt. Other objects found in the vicinity of Lanza included a black boonie hat and thin frame glasses. The Glock was found, apparently jammed, near Lanza, and the rifle was found several feet away from him. A 9mm SIG Sauer P226, which had not been fired during the incident, was found on Lanza’s person
The final report of the State Attorney summarizing the investigation into the shooting was published on November 25, 2013. It concluded that Adam Lanza had acted alone, and that the case was closed. The report noted that “[Lanza] had a familiarity with and access to firearms and ammunition and an obsession with mass murders, in particular the April 1999 shootings at Columbine High School in Colorado.” The report did not identify a specific motive for the shooting, stating, “The evidence clearly shows that the shooter planned his actions, including the taking of his own life, but there is no clear indication why he did so, or why he targeted Sandy Hook elementary school.”
On the question of Lanza’s state of mind, the report noted “significant mental health issues that affected his ability to live a normal life and to interact with others, even those to whom he should have been close … What contribution this made to the shootings, if any, is unknown as those mental health professionals who saw him did not see anything that would have predicted his future behavior.” The report found no evidence that Lanza had taken drugs or medication that would have affected his behavior, and observed, “‘Why did the shooter murder twenty-seven people, including twenty children?’ Unfortunately, that question may never be answered conclusively, despite the collection of extensive background information on the shooter through a multitude of interviews and other sources.”
On December 27, 2013, police released thousands of pages of documents pertaining to the investigation. In accordance with law, the names of victims and witnesses were redacted or withheld. The summary report included information about items found on Lanza’s computer equipment, including writings and material about previous mass shootings. A former teacher of Lanza’s noted that he exhibited antisocial behavior, rarely interacted with other students, and was obsessed with writing “about battles, destruction and war.”
The Report of the Office of the Child Advocate concluded: “There was not one thing that was necessarily the tipping point driving Lanza to commit the Sandy Hook shooting. Rather there was a cascade of events, many self-imposed, that included: loss of school; absence of work; disruption of the relationship with his one friend; virtually no personal contact with family; virtually total and increasing isolation; fear of losing his home and of a change in his relationship with Mrs. Lanza, his only caretaker and connection; worsening OCD; depression and anxiety; profound and possibly worsening anorexia; and an increasing obsession with mass murder occurring in the total absence of any engagement with the outside world. Adam increasingly lived in an alternate universe in which ruminations about mass shootings were his central preoccupation”.
The authors also noted that despite multiple developmental and mental health problems, Lanza had not received adequate mental health treatment. They wrote: “It is fair to surmise that, had Lanza’s mental illness been adequately treated in the last years of his life, one predisposing factor to the tragedy of Sandy Hook might have been mitigated”.
The report also tentatively disagreed with the conclusions of the State Attorney about why Lanza targeted Sandy Hook. They noted that “According to the FBI, shooters are likely to target places or people that are familiar to them … The elementary school may have been targeted because he could overpower people, a dynamic that is very important for mass shooters as they do not want to be thwarte
According to a 2019 study, over 85% of children will own a smartphone by the age of 12. Kids already love taking pictures, so photography clubs are bound to be in high demand. The best part is since most students carry a camera in their pockets anyway, this club won’t require a large budget.
Another advantage of photography is the almost limitless amount of activities, projects and events that can be organized around it. To get you started, here are the three most popular choices:
A photo walk is a tried-and-true icebreaker for a newly formed photography club. Kids are given a starting point, a “finish line” and a maximum number of pictures to take. Everyone works at their own pace, and the group ends up with dozens of unique perspectives to compare.
Weekly challenges are made up of a list of subjects to “shoot”. Each student works to photograph everything on the list, then presents their collection to the group at the end of the week. The trick is to choose common yet vague targets, so students ultimately have the discretion to be creative. For example, instead of “a red bird” or “a tall house”, choose subjects like “a happy bird” or “a spooky house”.
Break the students up into groups of 3-5 and assign each group the same task. Here, the idea is to set high expectations and see who can get closest to completing the task. One common competition for city-dwellers is to photograph every subway station. For rural folk, the stations can be replaced by main streets or tree species.
School violence is a growing problem that has received widespread attention. Violent behavior for elementary school children is primarily expressed as physical or verbal aggression. Various factors contribute to violent and aggression by children at homes, schools or individual risk factors. The aim of the present study is to measure the prevalence of violence, risk factors, and different forms among elementary school children, to identify consequence of violent exposure and children with abnormal behavior score. A cross-sectional study was done enrolling a total of 500 elementary students from two mixed schools (private and public) 250 from each in North Cairo Educational Zone. Data collected from students, parents and teachers were: violence behavior, home and family atmosphere, peer relation, exposure to violence at school; being victimized, witness, or initiator, and other risk factors.
Results: Prevalence of different forms of violence was higher in public school than private; physical violence 76%, 62% respectively. All forms of violence were higher among boys. Living with a single parent (OR = 2.3), absence of an attachment figure (OR = 13.6), instrumental delivery or cesarean section (OR = 1.9), corporal punishment (OR = 3), violent video games preference (OR = 2.5), exposure to verbal aggression (OR = 3), relations with aggressive peers (OR = 3) were risk factors for violence. Teacher’s report of SDQ revealed abnormal score of student’s behavior in (32.4%) and (22%) students of public and private schools respectively
Conclusion and recommendations: Abnormal and borderline scores of SDQ are high among studied students, Follow up and supervision is needed to prevent violence among them. An effective role model to direct student’s behavior should receive more concern at the school and home level.